High Fasting Blood Glucose Damages Blood Vessels
The high glucose levels in the body damage the inner lining of blood vessels. This is because high glucose increases damaging and inflammatory compounds and makes it harder for the vessels to relax.
High Fasting Blood Glucose Damages Nerves
Diabetic neuropathy happens when high glucose causes nerve damage in patients with diabetes. High glucose increases inflammation in the nerves, resulting in mild numbness and pain in the legs and feet.
High Fasting Blood Glucose May Cause Cancer
Individuals with higher fasting blood glucose levels over the last 11 years had a higher risk for pancreatic cancer. Long-term hyperglycemia may damage the liver and cause cancer, but elevated glucose could also be a side effect of pancreatic cancer.
High Fasting Blood Glucose May Cause Vision Loss
Hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for retinopathy.
High Fasting Blood Glucose May Cause Osteoporosis
This is a very useful test for monitoring diabetes. It gives insight on an individual’s blood glucose values over the past few months, providing more long-term information.
High HbA1c Damages Blood Vessels
Elevated HbA1c levels increased the amount of C-reactive protein in the body, which caused an inflammatory response in the blood vessels.
When HbA1c levels increase, blood vessel generation and function reduce. This is seen in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Additionally, elevation in HbA1c is also related to increases in thrombomodulin, an enzyme involved in blood clotting. High HbA1c increases the risk of blood clotting.
High HbA1c Damages Nerves
Elevated HbA1c caused nerve and neuron degeneration, while also minimally slowing down signals.
The most common consequence of nerve damage in individuals with high HbA1c is diabetic neuropathy. Similarly to the blood vessels, nerve damage occurs due to elevated reactive oxidative species and inflammation.
High HbA1c Weakens the Immune System
Elevated HbA1c caused changes in immune cell responses, which ultimately leads to an impaired immune system.
The greater the amount of HbA1c, the greater the reduction in bone mineral density in diabetic children.
HbA1c reduces osteocalcin levels, which increases the risk for fractures, breaks and osteoporosis.